Building construction materials
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10 Different Materials Used in Building Construction

Building Construction Materials 

Mud, stone, bricks, straw, iron, etc. are the traditional building construction materials. Such types have been used in construction for hundreds of years. They are easily available constructional resources in Nepal.

It is a fact that 44% of our country is covered by forest, and we use timber widely in different parts of construction like windows, doors, roofs, columns, and beams. The traditional buildings have been replaced by concrete buildings mostly in the urban area. Mostly we prefer concrete blocks for building.  Safety is a major part while building a new home.

The seismic capacity of the existing building is the main idea and factor while constructing a building. It depends on the materials that you have used. One of the main reasons for poor home structure is the use of poor-quality bricks. While utilizing local resources people need proper skills.

We can easily find stone masonry buildings mostly found in the northern mountainous range of Nepal. It is due to the availability of construction materials that are affordable and cost-effective. Constructional materials can be traditional and modern. Here is the list of the top 10 building materials used widely in construction.


1 Local Material

The materials which are locally available are called local materials. Materials like mud, bamboo, brick, stone, straw, timber, dung, sand, etc. are known as local materials. Use of local raw materials provides jobs for local society, promotes local business and enhances originality of traditional houses. The main advantages of local or traditional materials

  • Enhancement of cultural heritage,

  • Availability of materials,

  • Affordable price,

  • Energy efficiency,

  • Reusability,

  • biodegradable , 

  • Job opportunities for local,

  • Promotion originality,  

  • Economically efficient,


2 Cement

Cement is a binder or a chemical substance used for construction work. It is in the form of powder which is made of calcined limestone and clay. Basically, there are three types of cements (OPC,PPC and Rapid hardening cement). It is also used for concrete blocks. It is mostly used in construction work. Nowadays we believe that without cement construction work will not be completed.  There are more than 15 cement factories in Nepal. Some advantages cement in construction are, 

  • Cost efficient 

  • Easily available,

  • Durability,

  • Strength,

  • Permeability,

  • Fire, air, rain resistance,

  • Moldability 


Sand is a small form of rock. It is made out of quartz and feldspar. It is one of the highly usable construction materials. It is used for the purpose of plastering, roofing, grouting, and painting purposes. It is used in various construction works like, highway and road, concreting, aquariums, making glasses, etc. Here are the advantages of sand in building construction

  • Heat and cold maintenance,

  • Makes soil more porous,

  • Strength and stability,

  • Low cost,

  • Low production cost,

  • Wider choice of choice,

  • High complexity shapes


 

4 Metals

A solid material which is typically hard, shiny, fusible, ductile with electrical and thermal conductivity is known as metal. It is one of the most important building construction materials. Iron, steel, copper, and aluminum are the common materials that are used in construction. Metal is used in pillars, foundations, windows, doors, grills, and other parts of buildings. Here is the reason for the use of metal in the construction of buildings

  • Cost efficiency,

  • Design,

  • Flexibility and versatility, 

  • Durability,

  • Quick assembly, 

  • Energy efficiency, 

  • Low maintenance,


5 Plastic

Cellulose, coal, natural gas, coal, crude oil are the basic materials used in plastic. It is used widely in construction sites. PVC is used in most of the construction works. Plastic is used for various purposes such as seals, windows and doors, food covering, cables and insulation purposes. Due to its lightweight, easy to transport and  easy to install nature it is most usable. Here are the common features of plastic

  • Versatility,

  • Lightweight,

  • Easy to install.

  • Good safety,

  • Cost-efficient,

  • Reusable,

  • durability and longevity,

  • Resistance to water, chemical impact, 


6 Glass

Glass is a translucent material. It can be molded into any shape. So,it is one of the most versatile materials to be used in building construction. Basically it is used in windows, kitchens, on facades and rods also. It is a transplant sliding element, it is also used in architecture or baloney railings. Due to following reasons glass is used frequently in building construction,

  

  • Easy to use or install,

  • Cost-efficient,

  • Easy to clean,

  • Looks attractive,

  • Strength,

  • Durability,

  • Safety,

  • Soundproof,

  • Rust resistant,

  • Recyclable, 

  • Lightweight,

  • Available in multi-color,



    7 Tiles

    Tiles are thin, square or rectangular shaped covering materials. It is made out of ceramic, stone, metal, baked clay, or even glass. It is the most useful building material in construction. Tiles are widely used for the purpose of flooring in kitchen, bathrooms, rooftops, parking lots, table tops etc. Ceramic, porcelain, glass, marble, granite are the basic types of tiles used in buildings. Here are the advantage s of tiles;

    • It looks beautiful,

    • Low maintenance,

    • Green,

    • Durable,

    • Cost-efficient,

    • Easy to install,

    • Eco-friendly, 

    • Versatile, 

    • Easy to clean 


    8 Timber 

    Wood is prepared for use in building and carpentry is known as timber. It is a widely used construction material. The timber used for the purpose of windows, doors, roofs, furniture, fencing, floorboards and other purposes. 

    Here is the advantages of timber in building construction, 

    • It is safe,

    • Easy to install,

    • Cost-efficient 

    • Versatile,

    • Easily available, 

    • Recyclable,

    • Eco-friendly,

    • Natural Insulation,



    9 Bricks

    A brick is a type of block used to build walls and pavements in construction. It is a widely usable construction material. Facing bricks, engineering bricks and common bricks are basic types of bricks. An engineering brick is known as a strong brick. It has higher durability and low risk. It is easy to use in construction work and it has long durability. Here are the common features of bricks.

    • Sound and compact, 

    • Shape and size,

    • Compressive strength,

    • Toughness,

    • Water absorption,

    • Thermal conductivity,

    • Efflorescence,

    • Good brick earth,


    10 Concrete

    Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with fluid cement. It is a highly used building material. Concrete is known for its strength, durability, and versatility. Here are some important features of Concrete. 

    • Durability,

    • Fire resistance,

    • Low cost,

    • Energy Efficiency,

    • Versatility,

    • Tilt-up construction,

    • Construction speed, 

    • Low maintenance,


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