windows
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Windows glass and its type

Window glass



Windows are considered to be one of the most important and exceptional components of a building through which light, air and sound reach a space. A window is an opening in a wall, roof or a vehicle that allows the exchange of light and may also allow the passage of sound and air. No house can be complete without any windows. Windows facilitate the entry of natural light indoors. They enable the occupants of a house to enjoy the views of the neighbourhood or locality. In addition, they serve to keep the house cross-ventilated. As such, houses with ample windows will seldom look gloomy or feel stuffy. 

As humans, we all need natural daylight to survive. The presence of natural daylight in our house helps to cheer up our mood, increase our productivity, and improve our health. Thus, it is very important that our interior spaces get enough daylight and this can be achieved by the means of windows. Windows are best for allowing natural light in the house.

Important of windows in house:

  • Windows allow the fresh air to penetrate into your space. This improves the ventilation of the space. Windows are not the only source of ventilation for our houses, but they are vital components for ventilating our interior space.

  • The windows in your kitchens permit the escape of hot air. 

  • In bathrooms, they facilitate the escape of steam.

  • In other areas of the house, windows enable you to pass messages to people outside the house, without having to venture outdoors. While simple, these things are important in any house.

  • Windows accomplish this by keeping the cold air out and keeping warm air indoors. In certain situations, overheating could be a problem. To nullify this, builders add security ventilation brackets that facilitate the entry of air indoors, while keeping the window secure.

  • Window Lets Sunlight Inside the House, The sunlight has healing powers and it is essential for our hygiene as well as therapeutic and biological processes. windows, can easily get the natural light and warmth of sunlight in the house. 

  • Before locating windows for the admission of sunlight in a house, it is necessary to pay proper attention to the orientation of the building for avoiding harsh direct sunlight. 



The selection of suitable windows in a particular place should be dependent on the following factors.


  • Location of room

  • Size of room

  • Direction of wind

  • Climatic conditions

  • Utility of room

  • Architectural point of view


There are different types of windows used in building construction to provide ventilation, and view. The selection of windows depends on many criteria.


Types of windows:

  • Fixed windows

  • Sliding window

  • Pivot window

  • Single hung window

  • Double hung window

  • Fixed window

  • Metal window

  • Sash window

  • Skylights 

  • Ventilators

  • Casement window


Fixed Windows


Fixed windows are fixed to the wall without any closing or opening operation. In general, they are provided to transmit the light into the room. Fully glazed shutters are fixed to the window frame. The shutters provided are generally weatherproof.

Sliding window


window shutters are movable in the frame. The movement may be horizontal or vertical based on our requirements. The movement of shutters is done by the provision of roller bearings. Generally, this type of window is provided in buses, bank counters, shops, etc.

Pivots window


In this type of windows, pivots are provided to window frames. Pivot is a shaft which helps to oscillate the shutter. No rebates are required for the frame. The swinging may either be horizontal or vertical based on the position of pivots.

Casement Windows


Casement windows are the widely used and common windows nowadays. The shutters are attached to the frame and these can be opened and closed like door shutters. Rebates are provided to the frame to receive the shutters. The panels of shutters may be single or multiple. Sometimes wired mesh is provided to stop flies from entering. A casement window is a window that is attached to its frame by one or more hinges at the side. They are used singly or in pairs within a common frame, in which case they are hinged on the outside. Casement windows are often held open using a casement stay.

Ventilators


Ventilators are provided for the purpose of ventilation in the room. They are provided at greater height than windows nearer to roof level. It is very small. A ventilator is a passive device which ensures natural flow of fresh air through the otherwise airtight window frames. Ventilators are provided in the rooms at the top of the roofs because if the air inside the room gets hot, the hot air rises up and flows through these ventilators and thus cool air remains at bottom.

Metal window


Metal windows are windows with metal frames. Metal-framed windows were an idea developed as an alternative to wooden frames which require comparatively frequent maintenance. Metal was also chosen for its strength, due to the inherent, unique properties of iron – both for load-bearing and resistance to the elements. Generally, mild steel is used for making metal windows. These are very cheap and have more strength. So, nowadays these are widely used especially for public buildings, private buildings etc. 


skylights



A skylight is a light-permitting structure or window, usually made of transparent or translucent glass, that forms all or part of the roof space of a building for daylighting and ventilation purposes. Skylights or generally provided on the top of sloped roofs. To admit light into the rooms, sky lights are provided. It is provided parallel to the sloping surface. 


Single hung window


A single-hung window, also known as a single-sash window, is a type of window with a lower, operable sash and an upper, fixed sash. This means that the bottom part of the window slides up and down, while the top part remains stationary. Single-hung windows provide ventilation through the bottom sash. A single hung window has a fixed top sash and an operable bottom sash that moves vertically.Single hung windows are perfect for those homeowners who want to save on energy cost. Since it only has one movable part, single hung windows limit the amount of air that comes in and goes out of the house. This means that you can spend less on heating and cooling expenses all throughout the year.


Double hung window


Double hung windows consist of a pair of shutters attached to one frame. The shutters are arranged one above the other. These two shutters can slide vertically within the frame. So, we can open the windows on top or at bottom to our required level.


Window glass types:

  • Float glass

  • Laminated glass

  • Toughened glass

  • Insulated glass

  • Tinted glass

  • Mirror glass

  • Wire glass

Float glass


Float glass is a sheet of glass made by floating molten glass on a bed of molten metal, typically tin, although lead and other various low-melting-point. Float glass is a so-called flat glass, which is produced in a float glass process. To do this, the molten glass is applied to a bath of liquid tin. Since the glass is lighter than tin, it floats on the surface and spreads out completely evenly. Float glass is used for smaller windows in domestic housing, whereas larger windows are made from toughened glasses. Glass is used for windows for both aesthetic and functional purposes, allowing the occupants to see out and at the same time allowing light in. This form of glass has no colour and is low-cost, but it isn’t particularly strong.


Laminated glass


Laminated glass is constructed of two plies of glass which are bonded together with interlayers to form a permanent bond. The interlayers work to support and hold the glass to create a strong, uniformed layer even when broken. This type of glass is often used in vehicles where flying objects could cause the glass to break. With this glass type, it minimizes any potential damage to the occupant.  It can also be used as a structural glass and used in the construction of glass railings, glass floors, skylights, roofs, sunspaces, curtain walls, glass facades, etc.


Toughened glass


Toughened glass offers four times the strength of annealed glass.

It is commonly used as a way of being strong glass, but still remaining breakable in an emergency. Toughened glass is a type of safety glass processed by controlled thermal or chemical treatments to increase its strength compared with normal glass. Tempering puts the outer surfaces into compression and the interior into tension. 


Mirror glass


Mirrors are nothing but clear glass panels metallically coated on one side with either aluminium or silver that renders them reflective. This process is called silvering. The metallic coat is usually applied in multiple layers on a float glass panel. A metal coating is placed on one side of a pane of glass and then sealed with a protective sealant.

It’s not common for this type of glass to be used on exterior windows (though some do), it’s more common for use on walls and furniture as a decorative option.

Insulated glass

Insulating glass consists of two or more glass window panes separated by a space to reduce heat transfer across a part of the building envelope. Insulating glass units, or IGUs, are designed to keep homes warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer. An insulating glass unit commonly consists of two (sometimes more) panes of glass separated by a spacer material and sealed together at the edge



Wire glass


Wired glass is used in windows and partitions of schools, institutions, public buildings, government offices, hotels, etc. Wired glass is generally installed in windows of fire escape routes of the structure, to gain time for evacuating people in case of fire emergencies.

It offers reliable, integrity only, fire-resistant glazing in a range of applications, including doors, screens and overhead glazing. It can also be used in a variety of internal and external applications for vision or privacy purposes.



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